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Tuesday, 21 January 2014



65 million years ago the Dinosaurs were powerful animals in the world. The word dinosaur had come from the Greek term TERRIBLE LIZARD. The fossils of  dinosaur skeletons have been attracting people at museums around the world.
Dinosaurs were featured in books and films. These books are mega hits in the streets.
The biggest dinosaur is Argentinosaurs, it was named after Argentina Where its remains were found. This Dinosaur featured prominently in the permanent exhibition at fern bank Museum of Natural history in Atlanta Georgia, USA.
Argentinosaurs measured about 120 feet from head to tail and might have weighed over 100 tons.
Some of the dinosaur fossils were discovered in India.  The skeleton of dinosaur was found in Jabalpur cantonment, Madhya Pradesh by Captain William sleeman which was found in 1828. Plant eating dinosaurs’ two skeletons have been put at the Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata and Birla Science centre Hyderabad.
The height of the Dinosaur was 70 feet which is about the size of a six story building. Its length is equal to the length of 3 long school buses.

Altering life style habits and exercise can help prevent Alzheimer’s in millions of people across the world. Lack of physical activity has been found to be the biggest risk factor causing Alzheimer’s globally. Researchers say that even one hour’s exercise a week can reduce the chance of the disease by almost half.
A study which ranks the seven life style threats fuelling rising levels of dementia has found that physical inactivity increases the risk of Alzheimer’s by 82 percent followed by depression (61) obesity (60) smoking (59) low educational attainment (59) and diabetes (46) The study authors from Cambridge University and King’s college London say that a third of those destined to get Alzheimer’s could avoid the disease by modifying these known risk factors. Current estimates suggest that by 2050 more than 106 million people will be living with Alzheimer’s disease, a huge increase over the 30 million people affected by the disease in 2010.
Carol Brayne from the Cambridge institute of public Health estimates that by reducing the relative risk from each of these risk factors by 10 percent it will be possible to reduce the prevalence of Alzheimer’s in 2050 by 8.5 percent preventing 9 million cases.
Deborah Barners from the university of California said, “it is important that we have as accurate an estimate of the projected prevalence of Alzheimer’s as possible as well as accurate estimates of the potential impact of life style changes and ever increasing burden on health services worldwide; that these estimates will help public health professionals and health policy makers design effective strategies to prevent and manage this disease”.
The study published in the Lancet Neurology identifies exercise as the most significant protection against the above condition. Those who did not achieve three 20 minute bursts of vigorous exercise per week such as jogging or foot ball or five 30 minute sessions of moderate activity such as walking were 82 percent more likely to go on to develop dementia.
5 Surprising Signs of Alzheimer’s & Dementia are

One: Trouble Chewing Hard Foods

Two: Slow Walking

Three: Trouble Sleeping

Four: Carrying Extra Pounds

Five: Being Depressed

The health of your brain, like the health of your body, depends on many factors. While some factors, such as your genes, are out of your control, many powerful lifestyle factors are within your sphere of influence.
The six pillars of a brain-healthy lifestyle are:
1.     Regular exercise
2.     Healthy diet
3.     Mental stimulation
4.     Quality sleep
5.     Stress management
6.     An active social life
One can avoid the risks of Alzheimer’s & Dementia by practicing the above things
AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) can be brought under control by 2030 according to a global report issued by the United Nations Aids Agency. The UN AIDS report said new HIV infections and deaths from number of people infected with HIV is stabilizing at around 35 million worldwide.
There were 2.1million new cases in 2013, 38 percent less than the 3.4 million figure in 2001.What is especially worrying is that 19 million of 35 million people living with HIV globally do not know their HIV positive status.
“Whether you live or die should not depend on access to an HIV test” said Michel Sidibe, executive director of UNAIDS.” smarter scale up is needed to close the gap between people who know their HIV status and people who don’t and people who can’t and people who are protected and people who are punished. If we accelerate all HIV scale up, by 2020 we will be on track to end the epidemic by 2030.
By ending the epidemic by 2030 the world would avert 18 million new infections and 11.2million AIDS related deaths between 2013 and 2030.
Better to use old passwords than creating new ones
Internet users who are sick of endlessly memorizing passwords would be much better off reusing the same one over according to surprising research   published by Microsoft.
    “Complex unique passwords should only be used to access highly sensitive data such as a person’s bank account” says the academic paper published by Microsoft research ,the R & D arm of the software firm. Simpler passwords should then be recycled for low risk websites, the researchers argue.
The savvy web user should make a list of the websites they regularly visit and divide them in to sensitive and non   sensitive.  Better to use old passwords than creating new ones.
Courtesy: The independent

Every year during the monsoon, rain fills the agro fields across India. It simply might be a matter of respite from over bearing heat but in rural India 10 crore farming households have much more stake. India’s 60 % of agricultural land is rain fed and a failed monsoon often means complete loss of livelihoods and food security.
India mainly is dependent on monsoon for rains .Our country‘s agriculture, industrial growth, stock markets and our entire economy depends on monsoon rains.
The failure of monsoon rain means less supply of drinking water, poor crops and shortage of electricity as most of hydro power projects produces less power. During the monsoon failure,our Gross Domestic Production drops as the government spends massive amount on drought relief for farmers.
Water is most important element and no one can survive without it. So we have to save the rain water properly.
As the water problem continues there is a dire need of reform in water management. To recharge the ground water we have strictly to follow the rain water harvesting.
 In India urbanization gets rapid development. During monsoons we have to collect all fresh water on our terrace, roads and pavements. Storage of rain water is called rain water harvesting.
To store water we need to create rain water tanks and reserves.
In urban area rain water flows away as surface runoff. This run off could be caught and used for recharging ground water.
The method of water harvesting is a traditional culture. It is not new in India. In Tanjore big temple, the rain water is collected in Sivaganga temple.
Nowadays many state Governments have made rain water harvesting system   compulsory for housing societies.
Four rare mutations in a single gene may reduce the risk of heart disease by forty percent a new study has found.
By scouring the DNA of thousands of patients, researchers at the Broad Institute Massachusetts General hospital discovered the gene mutations that not only lower the levels of triglycerides type of fat in the blood but also significantly reduce a person’s risk of coronary heart disease.
The four rare mutations cripple the same gene called Apo c3 suggesting a powerful strategy in developing new drugs against heart disease, researchers said.
The work sheds light on the biological role of triglycerides and contributes to a growing body of knowledge and suggests that high triglyceride levels rather than low HdL are a major culprit in heart disease.
Coronary artery disease the most common form of heart disease is a major cause of death, worldwide.
Researchers set out to assess the role of rare genetic variants through DNA sequenced the exomes of nearly 4000 people searching for genetic variants associated with blood triglyceride levels. They discovered 4 distinct mutations all within the gene Apo c3 that are tied to lower blood triglycerides. Remarkably individuals carrying a single Apo c3 mutation had a ride levels. The Apo c3 protein is mainly made in the liver and pours out in to the blood stream.
There it is thought to prevent the removal of triglyceride rich lipoproteins from the blood in a few distinct ways particularly by delaying their clearance following a meal; the researchers then analyzed over 110,000 patient samples and readout or genotyped the relevant parts of the Apo c3 gene and compared heart attack rates in those carrying mutations to those without them.
The study was published in the New England journal of medicine.

A Us scientist claims to have found evidence that suggests that the speed of light as described by Einstein’s theory of general relativity  is slower than that has been thought .The theory suggests that  light travels at 29,97,92,458 meters/second in vacuum.
The claim by physicist James franson of the University of Maryland is based on observations made on the supernova Sn1987A; which exploded in 1987.The arrival of photons was later by 4.7hours than expected. Scientists at the time had said that this may be because the photons were from another source.
Franson has proposed that this may actually be because light slows down as it travels due to property of photons known as vacuum polarization-Where a photon spilits in to a positron and an electron for a very short time before recombining back into a gravitational differential, Franson noted, between the pair of particles ; which would have a tiny energy impact when they recombine- enough to cause a slight bit of a slow down during travel.
This would have occurred many times with may photons on a journey of 168,000 light years,the distance between us and SN 1987A and could easily add up to the 4.7 hour delay, Franson said

  Madhya Pradesh – The Heart of India

The state of Madhya Pradesh is called the heart of India; is the 2nd largest state in the country and this state is a cluster of innumerable districts housing the magnificent Vindyachal mountain range, rivers, valleys and plateaus.
Madhya Pradesh is famous for its wonderful arts, music dances and crafts. The State also has a good number of important mines that have a good influence on the economy of the country. This state, engaged mostly in agricultural activities, is the home land of many tribal races.
This state is located in central India, with its capital at Bhopal, was created on 1st November 1956. It has 51 districts with a total  population of 7 crore 25 lakhs 97 thousand and 565. The official language of the state is Hindi.
State literacy rate is 70.60%. Major rivers Narmadha, Tapti, Betwa, Chambal, Son, Mahanadhi are running across the state. The largest river of the State is Chambal River.

Breakfast improves Concentration
Breakfast is one of the most important meals of the day. It replenishes the body’s energy store after an all night fast. An ideal breakfast should be high in complex carbohydrates, meaning high in fibre and protein and low in fat.
These carbohydrates tend to be more satisfying and release their energy more slowly. It is recommended to have a fresh fruit along with breakfast which provides 1/3 of day’s requirement of nutrients. Foods eaten at breakfast may contain significant amounts of vitamins ‘C’ and ‘D’ calcium, iron, and fibre.
Brain needs a continuous supply of glucose, and when one skips breakfast, it taxes the body to maintain glucose levels. Eating breakfast has proven scientifically that improves concentration, problem solving ability, mental performance, memory and mood in children as well as in adults. By recharging your body and brain you can be more efficient in just about everything you do.
Today is a new day
Today is a new day either way what you do today is important because you are exchanging a day of your life. If you are too afraid of failure you can’t possibly do what needs to be done to succeed in living a fulfilling life. Whatever  life throws at you, even if it hurts, be strong and tight through. You must accept the end of something in order to begin to build something new. 

India needs Nuclear Power
           India’s energy need is high as its energy consumption has doubled between 1990 and 2011. Thermal, hydroelectric and renewable meet some of its need.
           In 2012, India had 21 nuclear reactors in operation with 7 other reactors in 6 nuclear power plants under construction. Nuclear power in India is poised to undergo a significant expansion in the coming years.
           There will be a significant increase in its power generation capacity to satisfy the power needs of one of the  rapidly expanding economies in the world. India has a vision of becoming a world leader in nuclear technology due to its expertise in fast reactors and thorium fuel circle.
Chernobyl Disaster
The chernobyl disaster is considered to be the worst nuclear power plant accident in the  history of the world.the
         On April 26th 1986, this nuclear plant met with the accident, when it released massive amounts of radioactive material into environment.
         The disaster management crew covered the destroyed unit in a temporary concrete structure, to minimize the release of radioactive material.
         10 lakhs people were affected by this worst nuclear accident in which the radiation level was 100 times more powerful than the atomic bombs dropped by the U.S on Hiroshima & Nagasaki (Japan)
           Libraries existed in both Babylonia and Egypt before 2000 BC. The Largest Greek Library was founded in 3rd century BC at Alexandria in Egypt. It was reputed to have held as high as 7 lakhs scrolls.  Private libraries gained popularity in the Roman Empire.
           Sir, Thomas Bodley took initiative in 1602 in England and restored a medieval library in Oxford. 8 years later the government’s publishing body, the stationer’s company decided to give the Bodleian a copy of every new book printed in Britain.
           In 1753 the British Museum library was awarded the same privilege. During 18th, 19th centuries lending libraries flourished. Free public libraries were established by Act of parliament in 1850.


World leaders and citizens gathered at the FNB Stadium in Johannesnurg South Africa. They paid homage to, anti apartheid icon and former South African president, Nelson Mandela, at a memorial service on 5th, Dec of 2013.
Representing the government and people of India President Pranab Mukherjee gave his eulogy for Mandela.
World celebrities arrived at the 95,000 seat FNB Stadium where Mandela made his last major public appearance during the 2010 Foot ball, world cup.
Leaders urged people apply the lessons of Mandela who emerged from 27’ years in prison under a racist regime.
Our President Pranab Mukherjee and 5 members Indian team attended the memorial service and paid homage to the great leader. 


Dhayan Chand
The Legend of Indian Hockey 
      • His birth day is observed as the NATIONAL SPORTS DAY ( August 29th )
      • Dhyan Chand Award is India’s highest award for lifetime achievement in sports & games, given by the Government of India annually from 2002 onwards.
      • Dhyan Chand who came to be known as hockey’s magician, started playing hockey only after joining Indian Army.
He was born on 29th August 1905, in Vabalpur, Madhya Pradesh. His brother Roop Singh also, a player. His father, Sameshwar Dutt Singh was in the British Indian Army, and he played in the army team.
Dhyan Chand had to discontinue his education after 6 years of Schooling. Young Dhayan who joined the army at the age of 16, started playing hockey from there .
Dhyan Chand helped India in winning gold medals in 3 successive Olympic Games.

            •   Amstar dam Olympics (1928)
            •    Los Angeles Olympics (1932)
            •   Berlin Olympics (1936)
He scored 101 goals at the Olympic Games and 300 goals in other international matches. From 1926 to 1948 he had scored over 1000 goals.
He was awarded the Padma Bhushan by the Indian Government in the year 1954.
Once, while playing a hockey game, major Dhyan Chand was not able to score a goal and  after several misses he argued with the match referee regarding the measurement of the goal post; surprisingly it was found that it was not conforming to the  international rules.
The legend player passed away on 3rd December 1979 at All India Institute of Medical Sciences Delhi.


Birds fly in a ‘V’ formation to arrange themselves in aerodynamically optimum positions.
Flying in a V formation helps each bird take advantage of good air (updraft )  thrown up by the wings of the flyer in front while avoiding detrimental bad air (downdraft)  . Researchers from the Royal veterinary College  of the University of London found this fact.
They also found that birds also flap their wings at just a right time so as maximize an updraft and minimize a down draft.

Graphene, is a molecule, extracted from graphite. It is 3 hundred times stronger than steel yet six times lighter. It is good conductor of electricity than copper. Up to 1000 times more conducive than silicon. This graphene is transparent.
Graphene is a one atom thick layer of carbon arranged in a honey comb lattice. When millions of these layers are stated, they form Graphite it is 3 dimensional crystalline arrangements, Graphene is two dimensional crystal. It allows digital devices to be embedded almost anywhere.
It helps in advance therapies and diagnostics of a range of diseases including cancer. It makes solar cells more efficient and cheaper to produce. It improves the performance of energy storage devices like batteries and full cells.

Common man’s bicycle travel is very important to decrease air pollution. As compared to Delhi, other Indian cities such as Ahmedabad, Pune, Chandigarh, and Pondicherry are considered friendlier towards cyclists. These cities have seen higher budgetary allocation for infrastructure and safety for pedestrians and cyclists during the last few years. Building safe and high quality cyclists friendly infrastructure and facilities in Indian cities would cost a fraction (up to 2%) of the government’s annual budget.
This will help lakhs of cyclists and also encourage more people to leave their motor vehicles at home; resulting in fewer traffic jams and lesser air pollution in the city.
A small step can lead to the solution for a gigantic problem , so from today onwards, pick your bicycle, and travel on the roads to affix your contribution towards pollution free environment.
One –half of a fresh avocado fruit for a lunch will help overweight people feel more satisfied and reduce their desire to eat after a meal.
Researchers found that participants, who added half of a fresh avocado to their lunch, reported a significantly decreased desire to eat by 40 percent over a 3 hour period. The study has been published in nutrition journal.

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